农机大数据!6月单缸机故障率达6100ppm,曲柄连杆机构故障高发

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2019年6月,全国农用单缸柴油机平均故障率估计约为6101ppm,同比增长515ppm,增幅为412ppm。本月单缸机各系统的故障率为:曲轴联动2754ppm,燃气分配机构71ppm,电气系统845ppm,进排气系统289ppm,冷却系统248ppm,燃油供给系统1119ppm,润滑系统285ppm,其他488ppm( ppm)“百万份.”,例如,1ppm是百万分之一,10,000ppm是百万分之一,即1%,即10000ppm=1%。下图是2019年6月单缸机中每个系统故障率的直方图:

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|农业机械课堂|单缸机

6月,传统农用机械在旺季使用,随着单缸机使用量的大幅增加,单缸机的故障率也恢复到正常水平,6月份的故障率约为6101ppm,约为0.61%。下图显示了5月和6月单缸机的故障率。

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在本月单缸机各系统故障中,曲柄连杆机构故障占45.1%,故障率排名第一;燃料供应系统故障占18.3%,故障率排名第二;电气系统故障占13.9%,故障率排名第三;润滑系统故障占4.9%,故障率排名第四。曲柄连杆机构的主要故障是气缸套,活塞,活塞环,连杆,连杆,曲轴,曲轴正时齿轮等。主要故障是燃油,异响,盖子漏油,主轴盖。漏油失败,身体水泡等;燃油供给系统的主要故障部件是油泵,喷油器,油箱,柴油滤清器等。主要故障是油泵和喷嘴故障,启动失败困难,油箱泄漏和柴油滤清器引起的非启动泄漏。油和油管密封不良引起的漏油;电气系统的主要故障是齿轮电动机,主要故障是起动困难,非起动故障引起的齿轮电动机问题,线束燃烧引起的电动机故障;润滑系统的主要故障部分是油泵和油管的主要故障是轴承衬套,连杆和保持衬套,发动机的异响和油管的漏油。下图是2019年6月单缸机中每个系统故障的比率:

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2019年6月单缸机的典型故障:

在本月的调查中,发现单缸机通常难以启动发动机,动力不足,并且在实际使用中燃烧油。当发现拆卸时,大多数汽缸套和活塞严重磨损。更换气缸套,活塞和活塞环后,发动机恢复正常,但用户经常会在几个月后再次使用这些症状。让我们分析气缸套磨损的形式和原因:

气缸套损坏有三种主要类型,一种是气缸套磨损,另一种是气缸套外壁腐蚀,第三种是气缸套裂纹或破碎头。气缸套磨损通常具有以下四个条件:正常磨损,磨损,焊接磨损,腐蚀磨损等。

一,正常磨损。正常磨损是活塞环与缸套表面摩擦引起的,缸套表面的最大磨损位置在活塞上止点时第一道环附近的位置,一般会形成一个明显的台阶,造成此情况的主要原因有:此位置活塞环对气缸内表面压力最大,缸套上端的温度较高金属的抗磨性下降,活塞在上止点时速度为零油膜不容易形成等

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二,磨料磨损。磨料磨损是由于吸入的空气清洁度差,含尘土较多,积碳严重,或机油过脏造成,此是造成缸套早磨的最常见,也是最重要原因,尘土经过进气道从上部吸入,积碳也是在上部形成,所以缸套上部磨损较大,同时机油是从下往上甩,硬微粒受重力影响作用,因而气缸下部磨损也比较显着。磨料磨损的特征是从缸套内侧沿活塞运动方向均匀的平行直线状的拉伤痕迹。减少磨料磨损的关键是吸入的空气一定要清洁,空滤一定要起到清洁空气的作用,如果空滤过脏,不及时清理,油浴式空滤不加油,机油不足,都极易造成发动机早磨。

XXThird, the melting wear. The welding wear is mainly caused by insufficient lubrication. The piston and the piston ring reciprocate at high speed in the cylinder liner. When the lubrication is insufficient, the oil film cannot be effectively formed between the working faces. Due to the local high heat formed by friction, when such high heat is generated When it accumulates to a certain extent, it will melt and bond the two. If the lubricating oil cannot be replenished in time to restore the oil film, the melting will continue to expand and form a pulling cylinder. The melting wear generally occurs at the top dead center of the cylinder liner. Near the location, the local metal melts and has grooves and wrinkles with uneven irregular edges. When the new machine is loaded with load without running, it is also easy to cause the cylinder to be pulled. The main reason is that the surface of the engine liner without the running-in is rough, the oil film is not easy to form, and the cylinder sleeve and the piston surface may have slight metal contact during the movement. Causes melting and even biting. The key to avoid welding wear is that the oil quality should meet the requirements of the specification. The oil quantity should not be lower than the oil line under the oil ruler. Check the oil regularly.

Four abrasion wear. Abrasive wear refers to the presence of sulfur and other impurities in the fuel, or due to frequent low temperature start-ups. When the fuel is decomposed by sulfur, sulfur dioxide or sulfur trioxide is formed, and when it comes into contact with water, it becomes sulfurous acid or sulfuric acid, causing the inner surface of the cylinder liner to be acid-etched. In the use of the engine, the fuel must be purchased from the regular Sinopec and PetroChina gas stations as much as possible to avoid the use of unqualified fuel to cause harmful damage to the engine.

Through the above analysis and the actual visits and investigations, it is seen that the main reasons for the use of the inner cylinder liner, the piston and the piston ring in the use of the single cylinder machine are often related to improper use, among which: oil bath type Air filter does not add oil, less oil, dirty oil; dry air filter element is dirty, does not clean and replace filter element in time, filter effect is poor; oil is unqualified, not timely check and replace oil, oil is insufficient; single cylinder machine works at low temperature for a long time (Using external circulation cooling water); use of unqualified diesel oil; long-time overload operation, etc. is the most common cause of wear and replacement of single-cylinder cylinder liners. It is hoped that users will avoid the above situations during use and reduce improper use of humans. The resulting cylinder liner is faulty and avoids losses.

xxThe above is all the sharing today, I hope to bring you help, welcome friends to comment and make suggestions~

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